National Westminster Bank plc. Personal tools Web Editor Log in. how to write interview results in dissertation The three examples above cover the most common publication types.
Note that in the last two references above, it is the book title and the journal name that are italicised, not the title of the paper or article. Academic style - can you 'spot' it? This guide aims to explain the general principles by giving details of the two most commonly used formats, the 'author, date' system and footnotes or endnotes.
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Note that in the last two references above, it is the book title and the journal name that are italicised, not the title of the paper or article. Referencing your work allows the reader:. Recent research on the origins of early man has challenged the views expressed in many of the standard textbooks Barker, The examples given below are used to indicate the main principles. It is better to check with your tutor first.
Humanities graduates in the labour market. Some academic disciplines prefer to use footnotes notes at the foot of the page or endnotes notes at the end of the work to reference their writing. As a very rough guide, while the introduction and the conclusions to your writing might be largely based on your own ideas, within the main body of your report, essay or dissertation, you would expect to be drawing on, and thus referencing your debt to, the work of others in each main section or paragraph.
Rules for the formatting of the detailed references follow the same principles as for the reference lists for the 'author, date' system. What sections go into a dissertation? Harriette Colenso and the Zulu struggle against imperialism.
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This guide aims to explain the general principles by giving details of the two most commonly used formats, the 'author, date' system and footnotes or endnotes. The simplest format, for a book reference, is given first; it is the full reference for one of the works quoted in the examples above. help writing essays pte An alternative format is shown in the example below. It explains the main principles of accurately referencing such sources in your work.
You may also wish to refer to other types of publications, including PhD dissertations, translated works, newspaper articles, dictionary or encyclopaedia entries or legal or historical texts. Even if you have reorganised a table of data, or redrawn a figure, you should still acknowledge its source:. proquest dissertation search boolean You may need to cite an unpublished idea or discussion point from an oral presentation, such as a lecture. Some dissertations have a reference list, some have a bibliography, some have both.
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A reference list is the detailed list of references that are cited in your work. These details should include:. The three examples above cover the most common publication types. In some academic disciplines, footnotes and endnotes are not only used for references, but also to contain elaborations or explanations of points made in the main text. In the 'author, date' system often referred to as the 'Harvard' system very brief details of the source from which a discussion point or piece of factual information is drawn are included in the text.
Search Site only in current section. The experience of the Student Learning Centre at Leicester is that many students are anxious to improve their writing skills, and are keen to seek help and guidance Maria Lorenzini, pers. In some academic disciplines, footnotes and endnotes are not only used for references, but also to contain elaborations or explanations of points made in the main text. This information is usually included in brackets at the most appropriate point in the text. Your source should be acknowledged every time the point that you make, or the data or other information that you use, is substantially that of another writer and not your own.
If you look carefully at all the examples of full references given above, you will see that there is a consistency in the ways in which punctuation and capitalisation have been used. For detailed examples and instructions on how to use the Harvard System of referencing at the University of Birmingham, download the style guides below. Each department will have its own preferred format, and every journal or book editor has a set of 'house rules'.